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December 2016

Volume 3  Issue 1

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Historical Article

A Brief historical Survey of the Anatomophysiology of the Kidney

S. Musitelli*

None of the medical treatises of the must ancient civilizations (Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt, China, India) contain any anatomo-physiological description of the kidney. Aristotle was the fist, who dealt with the matter. Aulus Cornelius Celsus describes the kidney in a brief passage of his De medicina. nothing interesting may be found in the treatises of the physicians of the Middle Ages till Berengarius of Carpi, who dissected from the concave side the multipapillary kidney (perhaps of a pig) and described for the first time the renal papillae.

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Research article

PCNL, Clotting Status and Bleeding Risk: Is Pre-operative Clotting Status Justified?

Goonewardene SS*, Dickinson A

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) monotherapy shows superior results in terms of stone clearance, cost-effectiveness, and also early postoperative convalescence when compared with shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) or open stone surgery. PCNL monotherapy as the most effective approach to large volume renal stone disease with a superior overall stone-free rate of 78% .Complication rates as high as 83% have been reported. Intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage is one of the most frequent complications associated with PCNL. Transfusion rates of up to 34% have been reported. About 1% of all PCNL patients complain of delayed postoperative bleeding.

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Review Article

Prospective Observational Study on Loin Pain Hematuria Syndrome Complicating Symptomatic Nephroptosis and the Results of Renal Sympathetic Denervation and Nephropexy Surgery

Ahmed N. Ghanem*, Salma A Ganem

Loin pain with or without hematuria is most serious and a difficult clinical problem. It affects mostly young females of at their 2nd-4th decade of life. A series of 190 patients prospectively studied over 10 years, representing the largest single group of patients’ referred to the Urology Department, King Khalid Hospital, Najran, at a rate of 1.76 cases per month. Najran is in the southern province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia at the border of Yemen with mixed population from both countries and expatriates.

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Research Article

Prostatic Tissue Level of Some Major and Trace Elements in Patients with BPH

Vladimir Zaichick PhD DSc CChem FRSC*, Sofia Zaichick MD PhD

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) represents the most common urologic age-related disease. BPH is histologically defined as an overgrowth of the epithelial and stromal cells in prostate gland. The prevalence of histological BPH is found in approximately 50-60% of males age 40-50, in over 70% at 60 years old and in greater than 90% of men over 70. To date, we still have no precise knowledge of the cellular and biochemical processes underlying the etiology and pathogenesis of BPH. There are a few hypotheses on the subject but the most common concept is based on the differentiating and growth-promoting actions of androgens.

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Research Article

Serum Prealbumin and Calprotectin Levels in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

Stavroula Fragkouli*,  Laskarina-Maria A. Korou,  Panagiotis Konstantopoulos,  Dimitrios Dimitroulis,  Nikolaos  Tentolouris,  Nikolaos Germanos,  Despina N. Perrea

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a complicated kidney disorder which can induce permanent renal failure in progressive stages. Diabetic nephropathy is considered as the main cause of chronic renal failure and of the last stage of KCD, know as End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD).

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Review Article

Induction with Thymoglobulin in High-Risk Renal Transplant Patients; Beauty and the Beast

Ahmed Aref, Bridson M Julie, Ajay Sharma, Ahmed Halawa*

Renal transplantation remains the treatment of choice in renal failure patients, one of the major challenges is to promote acceptance of the newly transplanted graft by the host immune system. Therefore, induction protocols were adopted to achieve this objective. The aim of induction immunosuppression is to reduce the risk of acute rejection and delayed graft function (DGF).

 

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Case Report

Polycystic Horseshoe Kidney

Gürsel YILDIZ*, Kemal MAĞDEN, Ender HÜR, Sumru TANJU ŞEN,Abdulkerim YILMAZ, Ferhan CANDAN

Horseshoe kidney is a renal fusion anomaly during embryogenesis with incidence ranges of 1 in 400 to 1 in 1800 live births. Adult polycystic kidney disease is a hereditary disorder and transmitted in autosomal dominant pattern with a reported incidence of 1 in 1000 to 1 in 5000 cases. Polycystic horseshoe kidney is a very rare occurrence with incidence ranges of 1 in 134 000 to 1 in 8 000 000 live births. We here present a patient who was admitted with headache, hypertension and polycystic horseshoe kidney.

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