Шаблоны LeoTheme для Joomla.
GavickPro Joomla шаблоны

Original Research

Prostatic Tissue Level of Some Major and Trace Elements in Patients with BPH

Vladimir Zaichick PhD DSc CChem FRSC1*, Sofia Zaichick MD PhD2

1Radionuclide Diagnostics Department, Medical Radiological Research Centre, Koroleyva St.- 4, Obninsk 249036, Kaluga Region, Russia
2Department of Medicine, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60612, USA

*Corresponding author:   Dr. Vladimir Zaichick, Medical Radiological Research Centre, 4, Koroleyva St., Obninsk 249036, Kaluga Region, Russia, Tel: (48439) 60289; Fax: (495) 956 1440; Email: vezai@obninsk.com

Submitted: 02-29-2016 Accepted:  03-28-2016 Published: 04-25-2016

Download PDF

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Article

 

Abstract

Background: Several studies have supposed the role of age-related deficiency of some essential chemical elements in the etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

Aim:The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate whether significant deficiencies in the prostatic tissue levels of zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and some other chemical elements exist in patients with BPH.

Material and Methods: We prospectively evaluated prostatic tissue levels of 17 chemical elements in 32 patients with BPH and
32 healthy male inhabitants (control group). Measurements were performed using two analytical methods: instrumental neutron activation analysis with high resolution spectrometry of short-lived radionuclides and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry.

Results: In the hyperplastic prostates we observed a significant increase in levels of K (potassium) and Sr (strontium) in comparison with the histologically normal prostates. It was not found a significant difference of prostatic tissue levels of Zn, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Cu between group of BPH patients and control group. Correlations between the prostatic chemical element  mass fractions indicated that there is a great disturbance of prostatic chemical element relationships with a hyperplasia of prostate tissue.

Conclusion: Our finding of prostatic tissue levels of chemical element and correlation between chemical element contents indicates that there is a disturbance of chemical element metabolism in BPH tissue in comparison with the normal prostate tissue. However, the potential role of age-related Zn, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Cu deficiency in the prostate has not been confirmed as  being involved in the etiology of BPH. Thus, our findings cast doubts on a beneficial effect of the Zn, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Cu supplementations on BPH prevention and treatment.

Keywords: Benign Prostate Hyperplasia; Prostatic Trace Element Contents; Trace Element Supplementations

Abbreviations

BPH: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia;

INAA-SLR: Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis with high resolution Spectrometry of Short-lived Radionuclides;

ICP-AES: Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry

Introduction

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) represents the most common urologic age-related disease. BPH is histologically defined as an overgrowth of the epithelial and stromal cells in prostate gland [1]. The prevalence of histological BPH is found in approximately 50-60% of males age 40-50, in over 70% at 60 years old and in greater than 90% of men over 70 [2]. To date, we still have no precise knowledge of the cellular and biochemical processes underlying the etiology and pathogenesis of BPH [3]. There are a few hypotheses on the subject but the most common concept is based on the differentiating and growth-promoting actions of androgens [4].

In our previous studies it was shown that the levels of Zn, Ca, Mg, K and some other chemical elements in prostate tissue are the androgen-dependent parameters and play an important role in prostate functions [5-10]. Moreover, it is well known that Zn, Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Cu, and some other chemical element  play important roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, and transformation and are essential for the regulation of DNA synthesis, mitosis and apoptosis [11]. Due to lifestyle, eating and dietary habits, and physiological effects of aging, the elderly male population is normally predisposed to conditions of chemical elements deficiency [12,13], which can increase this population’s susceptibility to BPH [14]. According to the proponents of dietary supplemental chemical element usage, in the absence of such supplements, cellular chemical element uptake will be depressed and chemical element levels in prostate tissue will be reduced [14,15].

The chemical element contents in tissue of the non-hyperplastic [6,9,16-33] and hyperplastic [19,23-25,34-42] prostate have been studied, producing contradictory results. Data obtained in the majority of studies are based on measurements of processed tissue. The most frequently used digestion procedures have been the traditional dry ashing and wet digestion that allow destruction of organic matter of the sample. Moreover, in many studies before digestion procedures prostate samples have been treated with solvents (distilled water, ethanol etc) and then dried at a high temperature for many hours. Sample preparation, including sample digestion and other kinds of treatment tissue samples before measurement, is a critical step in elemental analysis due to risk of contamination and analyses loss, contributing for the uncontrolled analysis errors [43-47]. Moreover, only a few of these studies employed quality control using certified reference materials for determination of the chemical element mass fractions. Thus, the questions about the differences between chemical element contents in intact and BPH tissue remained open.

This work had four aims. The first was to assess the chemical element mass fractions in BPH tissue using nondestructive instrumental neutron activation analysis with high resolution  spectrometry of short-lived radionuclides (INAA-SLR) combined with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The second aim was to compare the results for BPH tissue with the levels of chemical elements in the non-hyperplastic prostate gland of age-matched health subjects, who had died suddenly. The third aim was to estimate the inter-correlations between trace element mass fractions in hyperplastic prostate and to compare these results with data for non-hyperplastic gland. The final aim was to compare the results obtained in this work with data from the literature.

All studies were approved by the Ethical Committee of the Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk.

Materials and Methods

All patients studied (n=32) were hospitalized in the Urological Department of the Medical Radiological Research Centre. In all cases the diagnosis of BPH has been confirmed by clinical and morphological results obtained during studies of biopsy and resected materials. None of the patients were taking a trace element supplement known to affect prostate chemical element contents. The age of patients with BPH ranged from 46 to 78 years (1 in age before 50 years, 7 in age range 51-60 years, 15 in age range 61-70 years, and 9 in age above 70 years), the mean being 65±6 years (M±SD). Using a titanium scalpel resected materials were divided into two portions to permit morphological study of prostatic tissue and to estimate their chemical element contents.

Intact prostates were removed at necropsy from 32 men aged from 44 to 87 years (10 in age before 50 years, 10 in age range 51-60 years, 8 in age range 61-70 years, and 4 in age above 70 years, mean M±SD age 60±11 years) who had died suddenly (age-matched control group). The majority of deaths were due to trauma. The available clinical data were reviewed for each subject. None of the subjects had a history of an intersex condition, endocrine disorder, neoplasm or other chronic disease that could affect the normal development of the prostate. None of the subjects were receiving medications known to affect prostate morphology or chemical element content. All prostate glands were collected within 2 days of death and divided (with an anterior-posterior cross-section) into two portions using a titanium scalpel. One tissue portion was reviewed by an anatomical pathologist while the other was used for the chemical element content determination. A histological examination was used to control the age norm conformity as well as to confirm the absence of any microadenomatosis and/or latent cancer.

After the samples intended for chemical element analysis were weighed, they were freeze-dried and homogenized. The pounded
sample weighing about 100 mg was used for chemical element measurement by INAA-SLR. The samples for INAA-SLR were sealed separately in thin polyethylene films washed with acetone and rectified alcohol beforehand. After INAA-SLR investigation the prostate samples were taken out from the polyethylene ampoules, decomposed in autoclaves and used for ICP-AES. Information detailing with the INAA-SLR and ICP-AES methods used and other details of the analysis was presented in our previous publication [6,8,26,30].

For quality control, ten subsamples of the certified reference materials IAEA H-4 Animal muscle from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and also five sub-samples INCTSBF- 4 Soya Bean Flour, INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves and INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs from the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT, Warszawa, Poland) were analyzed simultaneously with the investigated prostate tissue samples. All samples of CRM were treated in the same way as the prostate tissue samples. Detailed results of this quality assurance program were presented in earlier publications [6,8,26,30].

A dedicated computer program for INAA mode optimization was used [48]. The mean values of chemical element mass fractions were taken into account in final calculation for elements measured by both INAA-SLR and ICP-AES methods. Using Microsoft Office Excel software, arithmetic mean (M), standard deviation (SD), and standard error of mean (SEM) was calculated for chemical element mass fractions. The reliability of difference in the results between non-hyperplastic and hyperplastic prostate glands was evaluated by the parametric Student’s t-test and values of p<0.05 were considered to be statistically significant.

Results

Table 1 presents basic statistical parameters (arithmetic mean, standard deviation, standard error of mean, minimal and maximal values, median, percentiles with 0.025 and 0.975 levels) for aluminum (Al), boron (B), barium (Ba), bromine (Br), Ca, Cu, Fe, K, lithium (Li), Mg, manganese (Mn), sodium (Na), phosphorus (P), sulphur (S), silicon (Si), Sr, and Zn mass fraction in BPH and non-hyperplastic prostate tissue.

The ratios of means and the reliability of difference between mean values of Al, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Si, Sr, and Zn mass fraction in BPH and normal prostate tissue are presented in Table 2.

To estimate the effect of age on the Al, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Si, Sr, and Zn mass fractions in BPH tissue we examined two age groups: the first comprised persons with ages ranging from 56 to 65 years (mean age 62±3 years, n=18) and the second comprised those with ages ranging from 66 to 87 years (mean age 70±5 years, n=14). The means, the ratios of means and the reliability of difference between mean values of chemical element mass fractions in two age groups are presented in Table 3.

Tables 4 and 5 present intercorrelations (r – the Pearson correlation coefficient) of pairs of the chemical element mass fractions
in normal and BPH prostate glands, respectively.

nepro table 26.1

E l element M arithmetic mean, SD standard deviation, SEM standard error of mean, Min minimum value, Max maximum value, Med. median, P0.025 percentile with 0.025 level, P0.975 percentile with 0.975 level.

Table 1. Basic statistical parameters of the Al, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Si, Sr, and Zn mass fraction (mg/kg, on dry mass basis) in the hyperplastic (BPH) and non-hyperplastic prostate tissue (Normal)

M arithmetic mean, SEM standard error of mean, NS not significant difference.

Median, minimum and maximum value of means of Al, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Si, Sr, and Zn mass fraction in BPH and normal prostate tissue according to data from the literature in comparison with our results (mg/kg, dry mass basis) are shown in Table 6. When our results were compared with data of literature a number of values for trace element mass fractions were not expressed on a dry mass basis by the authors of the cited references. However, we calculated these values using the medians of published data for water – 83% [49] and ash – 1% [50] on wet mass basis contents in non-hyperplastic prostate of adult men, and also for water – 80% in BPH tissue [40].

nepro_table_26.23

nepro table 26.4

nepro_table_26.5

nepro_table_26.6

M arithmetic mean, SD standard deviation, “–“no data, a Number of all references, b Number of samples.
Table 6. Median, minimum and maximum value of means of the Al, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Si, Sr, and Zn mass fractions (mg/kg, on dry mass basis) in BPH and normal prostate glands of adults according to data from the literature in comparison with our results.

Discussion

The INAA-SLR and ICP-AES allowed determine the mean mass fractions of 6 (Br, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, and Na) and 16 (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Si, Sr, and Zn) trace elements, respectively, in the tissue samples of BPH and normal prostate glands. Thus, the use two analytical methods one by one allowed us to estimate the mass fractions of 17 trace elements. Moreover, good agreement was found between the mean values of the Ca, K, Mg, Mn, and Na mass fractions determined by both INAA- SLR and ICP-AES indicating complete digestion of the prostate tissue samples (for ICP-AES techniques) and correctness of all results obtained by the two methods. The fact that the elemental mass fractions (M±SD) of the certified reference materials obtained in the present work were in good agreement with the certified values and within the corresponding 95 % confidence intervals [8,30] suggests an acceptable accuracy of the measurements performed on the prostate tissue samples.

In the hyperplastic prostates, we have observed an increase in mass fraction of B, K, Mg, Si, Sr and Zn in comparison with the histologically normal prostates (Tables 1 and 2). However, a significant higher level of K (p<0.0036) and Sr (p<0.035) mass fraction was only found in BPH tissue (Table 2). For example, in prostate glands of patients with BPH the K mass fraction was 25% greater than in controls. It is well known that K is the major action of the intracellular fluid and also that cells are the main pools of this electrolyte in human body [51]. Thus, because the major characteristic of BPH is an overgrowth of the prostatic cells, becomes clear why an increase in the prostatic K mass fraction has respect to a hyperplastic transformation. The real reason behind the high level of Sr mass fraction in BPH tissue requires further study for a more complete understanding.

No statistically significant differences between the mean values of all other chemical element mass fractions determined in this study (Al, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Si, and Zn) for BPH and normal prostates were found (Table 2). This finding agrees well with data of some other known studies for Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, and Zn [23,35,38,39].

In our previous publications [26,30, 52-55] it was shown that in the histologically normal prostates of males in the sixth to ninth decades, the magnitude of chemical element mass fractions were maintained at near constant levels. No age-related differences in chemical element mass fraction in the hyperplastic prostate glands of men aged from 56 to 78 years were found in this study (Table 3).

In normal prostate glands a statistically significant direct correlation was found, for example, between the prostatic Zn and Mg (r = 0.53), and Zn and P (r = 0.85), between the prostatic Mg and Na (r = 0.52), Mg and P (r = 0.71), Mg and S (r = 0.55), and Mg and Zn (r = 0.53), between the prostatic Ca and Br (r = 0.58), and also Ca and Sr (r = 0.60), between the prostatic K and S (r = 0.67), between the prostatic Si and Al (r = 0.68), and between the prostatic Sr and Br (r = 0.60) (Table 4). If some positive correlations between the elements were predictable  (e.g., Ca–Sr), the interpretation of other observed relationships requires further study for a more complete understanding.

In BPH tissue significant correlations between chemical elements found in the control group are no longer evident, for example, correlations for pairs with Zn, Mg, Ca, correlation between K and S, etc. (Table 5). Thus, if we accept the levels and relationships of chemical element mass fraction in prostate glands of males in the control group as a norm, we have to conclude that with a hyperplasia the levels and relationships of chemical elements in prostate significantly changed. No published data referring to correlations between chemical elements mass fractions in hyperplastic prostate tissue were found.

The obtained values for Al, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Si, Sr, and Zn mass fractions in intact and histologically normal prostate tissue, as shown in Table 6, agree well with median of means cited by other researches for the non-hyperplastic prostate glands of adult males, including samples received from persons who died from various diseases. For BPH tissue the means for Br, K and Na are somewhat higher than the maximum mean value of previously reported data. The means of this work for Mn and S are almost 5 times lower, than previously reported minimal results. No published data referring to Al, B, Ba, Li, and Si mass fractions in BPH tissue were found.

Conclusion

This work revealed that there are the significantly elevated levels of K and Sr mass fractions in hyperplastic prostates in comparison with those in the histologically normal prostates. In the sixth to eighth decades the mass fractions of all chemical elements investigated in BHP tissue were maintained at approximately stable levels. Our finding of correlation between pairs of prostatic chemical element mass fractions indicates that there is a great disturbance of prostatic chemical element relationships with a hyperplasia of prostate tissue.

However, our data also revealed that there are no any differences between Zn, Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu mass fraction in the  prostate tissue of healthy individuals and patients with BPH. Thus, the potential role of age-related Zn, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Cu deficiency in the prostate has not been confirmed as being involved in the etiology of BPH. Moreover, our findings cast doubts on a beneficial effect of the Zn, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Cu supplementations on BPH prevention and treatment.

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Dr. Tatyana Sviridova, Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk, Russia, for supplying BPH tissue specimens, and Dr. Karandaschev V., Dr. Nosenko S., and  Moskvina I., Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purity Materials, Chernogolovka, Russia, for their help in ICPAES analysis.

References

 References

1.Robert G, Descazeaud A, Nicolaïew N et al. Inflammation in benign prostatic hyperplasia: a 282 patients’ immunohistochemical analysis. Prostate. 2009, 69(16): 1774-1780.

2.Roehrborn C, McConnell J. Etiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology and natural history of benign prostatic hyperplasia. In: Campbell’s Urology. 8th edition. Edited by Walsh P, Retik A, Vaughan E, Wein A. Philadelphia: Saunders. 2002, 1297-1336.

3. Corona G, Vignozzi L, Rastrelli G, Lotti F, Cipriani S et al. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A New Metabolic Disease of the Aging Male and Its Correlation with Sexual Dysfunctions. Int J Endocrinol. 2014, 329456.

4. Patel ND, Parsons JK. Epidemiology and etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia and bladder outlet obstruction. Indian J Urol. 2014, 30(2): 170-176.

5. Zaichick S, Zaichick V. Relations of morphometric parameters to zinc content in paediatric and nonhyperplastic young adult prostate glands. Andrology. 2013, 1(1): 139-146.

6. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. The effect of age on Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Mn, and Na mass fraction in pediatric and young adult prostate glands investigated by neutron activation analysis. Appl Radiat Isot. 2013, 82: 145-151.

7. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. INAA application in the assessment of Ag, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, and Zn mass fraction in pediatric and young adult prostate glands. J Radioanal Nucl Chem. 2013, 298(3): 1559-1566.

8. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. NAA-SLR and ICP-AES Application in the Assessment of Mass Fraction of 19 Chemical Elements in Pediatric and Young Adult Prostate Glands. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013, 156(1): 357-366.

9.  Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Use of Neutron Activation Analysis and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry for the Determination of Trace Elements in Pediatric and Young Adult Prostate. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2013, 4(12): 696-706.

10. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Androgen-dependent chemical elements of prostate gland. Androl Gynecol: 2014, 2(2). 

11. Shanker AK. Mode of action and toxicity of trace elements. In: Trace Elements: Nutritional Benefits, Environmental  Contamination, and Health Implications. Edited by Prasad MNV. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2008, 525-555.

12.  Ekmekcioglu C. The role of trace elements for the health of elderly individuals. Nahrung. 2001, 45(5): 309-316.

13. Vaquero MP. Magnesium and trace elements in the elderly: intake, status and recommendations. J Nutrit Health Aging. 2002, 6(2): 147-153.

14. Sapota A, Daragó A, Taczalski J, Kilanowicz A. Disturbed homeostasis of zinc and other essential elements in the prostate gland dependent on the character of pathological lesions. BioMetals. 2009, 22(6): 1041-1049.

15.Costello LC, Franklin RB. The clinical relevance of the metabolism of prostate cancer; zinc and tumor suppression: connecting
the dots. Mol Cancer. 2006, 5: 17-30.

16.Tipton IH, Cook MJ. Trace elements in human tissue. Part II. Adult subjects from the United States. Health Phys. 1963, 9(2): 103-145.

17.Jaritz M, Anke M, Holzinger S. Der Bariumgehalt verschiedener Organe von Feldhase, Wildschwein, Damhirsch, Reh, Rothirsch, Mufflon and Mensch. In: Mengen und Spurenelemente, 18 Arbeitstagung. Edited by Anke M et al. Jena: Friedrich- Schiller-Universität. 1998, 467-474.

18.Kubo H, Hashimoto S, Ishibashi A. Simultaneous determinations of Fe, Cu, Zn, and Br concentrations in human tissue sections. Medical Physics. 1976, 3(4): 204-209.

19.Zaichick S, Zaichick V. Method and portable facility for energy- dispersive X-ray fluorescent analysis of zinc content in needle-biopsy specimens of prostate. X-Ray Spectrom. 2010, 39(2): 83-89.

20. Schneider H-J, Anke M, Holm W. The inorganic components of testicle, epididymis, seminal vesicle, prostate and ejaculate of young men. Int Urol Nephrol. 1970, 2(4): 419-427.

21. Tohno S, Kobayashi M, Shimizu H, Tohno Y, Suwannahoy P et al. Age-related changes of the concentrations of select  elements in the prostates of Japanese. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2009, 127(3): 211-227.

22. Anspaugh LR, Robinson WL, Martin WH, Lowe OA. Compilation of Published Information on Elemental Concentrations in human Organs in Both Normal and Diseased States. 1973.

23. Jafa A, Mahendra NM, Chowdhury AR, Kamboj VP. Trace elements in prostatic tissue and plasma in prostatic diseases of man. Indian J Cancer. 1980, 17(1): 34-37.

24. Sangen H. The influence of the trace metals upon the aconitase activity in human prostate glands. Jap J Urol. 1967, 58(11): 1146-1159.

25. Guntupalli JN, Padala S, Gummuluri AV, Muktineni RK, Byreddy SR et al. Trace elemental analysis of normal, benign, hypertrophic and cancerous tissues of the prostate gland using the particle-induced X-ray emission technique. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2007, 16(2): 108-115.

26. Zaichick V, Nosenko S, Moskvina I. The effect of age on 12 chemical element contents in intact prostate of adult men investigated by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012, 147(1): 49-58.

27.  Forssen A. Inorganic elements in the human body. I. occurrence of Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Cs, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Sn, Sr, Y and Zn in the
human body. Annales medicinae Experimentalis et Biologie (Finland). 1972, 50(3): 99-162.

28.Banaś A, Kwiatek WM, Zając W. Trace element analysis of tissue section by means of synchrotron radiation: the use of GNUPLOT for SPIXE spectra analysis. Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 2001, 328(1-2): 135-138.

29.Soman SD, Joseph KT, Raut SJ, Mulay CD, Parameswaran M et al. Studies of major and trace element content in human  tissues. Health Phys. 1970, 19(5): 641-656.

30. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Determination of trace elements in adults and geriatric prostate combining neutron activation with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Open Journal of Biochemistry. 2014, 1(2): 16-33.

31.Belt TH, Irwin D, King EJ. Silicosis and dust deposits in the tissues of person without occupational exposure to siliceous dusts. Canad Med Assoc J. 1936, 34(2): 125-133.

32.Zaichick S, Zaichick V. The Br, Fe, Rb, Sr, and Zn content and interrelation in intact and morphologic normal prostate tissue of adult men investigated by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent analysis. X-Ray Spectrom. 2011, 40(6): 464-469.

33.Galván-Bobadilla AI, García–Escamilla RM, Gutiérrez-García N, Mendoza-Magaña ML, Rosiles-Martínez R. Cadmium and zinc concentrations in prostate cancer and benign prostatic. Rev Latinoamer Patol Clin. 2005, 52(2): 109-117.

34.Zaichick S, Zaichick V. EDXRF determination of trace element contents in benign prostatic hypertrophic tissue. In: Fundamental Interactions and Neutrons, Neutron Spectroscopy, Nuclear Structure, Ultracold Neutrons, Related Topics. Dubna (Russia): Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. 2014, 311-316.

35. Hienzsch E, Schneider H-J, Anke M. Vergleichende Untersuchungen zum Mengen- und Spurenelementgehalt der normalen
Prostata, des Prostataadenoms und des Prostatakarzinoms. Zeitschrift für Urologie und Nephrologie. 1970, 63: 543-546.

36. Leitão RG, Palumbo AJ, Correia RC, Souza PAVR, Canellas CGL et al. Elemental concentration analysis in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia tissue cultures by SR-TXRF. Activity Report. Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, 2009.

37. Yaman M, Atici D, Bakirdere S, Akdeniz I. Comparison of trace metal concentrations in malignant and benign human prostate. J Med Chem. 2005, 48(2): 630-634.

38. Marezynska A, Kulpa J, Lenko J. The concentration of zinc in relation to fundamental elements in the diseases human  prostate. Int Urol Nephrol. 1983, 15(3): 257-265.

39. Picurelli L, Olcina PV, Roig MD, Ferrer J. Determination of Fe, Mg, Cu, and Zn in normal and pathological prostatic tissue. Actas Urol Esp. 1991, 15(4): 344-350.

40. Györkey F, Min KW, Huff JA, Györkey P. Zinc and magnesium in human prostate gland: Normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic. Cancer Res. 1967, 27(8):1348-1353.

41. Kwiatek WM, Banas A, Gajda M, Gałka M, Pawlicki B et al. Distinguishing Prostate Cancer from Hyperplasia. Acta Physica Polonica. 2006, 109(3): 377-381.

42.  Kiziler AR, Aydemir B, Guzel S, Alici B, Ataus S et al. May the level and ratio changes of trace elements be utilized in  identification of disease progression and grade in prostatic cancer? Trace Elements and Electrolytes. 2010, 27(2): 65-72.

43. Fuente MA, Juаrez M. Determination of phosphorus in dairy products by sample wet digestion in a microwave oven. Analytica Chimica Acta. 1995, 309(1-3): 355-359.

44. Zachariadis GA, Stratis JA, Kaniou I, Kalligas G. Critical comparison of wet and dry digestion procedures for trace elements analysis of meat and fish tissues. Microchimica Acta. 1995, 119: 191-198.

45. Zaichick V. Sampling, sample storage and preparation of biomaterials for INAA in clinical medicine, occupational and environmental health. In: Harmonization of Health-Related Environmental Measurements Using Nuclear and Isotopic Techniques. Vienna: IAEA. 1997, 123-133.

46. Zaichick V. Losses of chemical elements in biological samples under the dry ashing process. Trace Elements in Medicine (Moscow). 2004, 5(3): 17-22.

47. Zaichick V. Medical elementology as a new scientific discipline. J Radioanal Nucl Chem. 2006, 269(2): 303-309.

48. Korelo AM, Zaichick V. Software to optimize the multielement INAA of medical and environmental samples. In: Activation Analysis in Environment Protection. Dubna (Russia): Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. 1993, 326-332.

49. Woodard HQ, White DR. The composition of body tissues. Br J Radiol. 1986, 59(708): 1209-1218.

50. Saltzman BE, Gross SB, Yeager DW, Meiners BG, Gartside PS. Total body burdens and tissue concentrations of lead,  cadmium, copper, zinc, and ash in 55 human cadavers. Environ Res. 1990, 52(2): 126-145.

51. Terry J. The major electrolytes: sodium, potassium, and chloride. J Intraven Nurs. 1994, 17(5): 240-247.

52.  Zaichick S, Zaichick V. INAA application in the age dynamics assessment of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Mn, and Na content in the normal human prostate. J Radioanal Nucl Chem. 2011, 288(1):  197-202.

53. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. INAA application in the assessment of chemical element mass fractions in adult and geriatric prostate glands. Appl Radiat Isot. 2014, 90: 62-73.

54.Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Use of INAA and ICP-MS for the assessment of trace element mass fractions in adult and geriatric prostate. J Radioanal Nucl Chem. 2014, 301(2): 383-397.

55. Zaichick V. The variation with age of 67 macro- and microelement contents in nonhyperplastic prostate glands of adult and elderly males investigated by nuclear analytical and related methods. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2015, 168(1): 44-60.

Cite this article: Vladimir Zaichick. Prostatic Tissue Level of Some Major and Trace Elements in Patients with BPH. J J Nephro Urol. 2016, 3(1): 026.

Contact Us:
9600 GREAT HILLS
TRAIL # 150 W
AUSTIN, TEXAS
78759 ( TRAVIS COUNTY)
E-mail : info@jacobspublishers.com
Phone : 512-400-0398